Thursday, September 9, 2010

Alexis Texas And Black Guys

Ximki Forest of Samantha Smith

died in November 1982 who had been leader of the Soviet Union for 18 an-os, Leonid Brezhnev ( after image), and Yuri Andropov quickly becomes his successor. Because since the time of Lenin changes in Soviet power came rigged changes in Soviet foreign policy the international press and analysts immediately began to write about the new Soviet leader Andropov showing a serious threat to the stability of the West.
A report by Soviet emigres living in the United States considered him one of the brains behind the construction of the Berlin Wall, responsible for the decision of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the repression of Solidarity in Poland and even implicated him in the attempted assassination of Pope in 1981. In addition, it showed how a person without scruples when it came to eliminate political rivals, through alibis pretended suicides, heart attacks or car accidents.

Andropov (top) had been Ambassador to the USSR during the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and also director of the KGB from 1967 to May 1982 whose mandate strengthened and expanded the presence of this organism in the government and Soviet society. Command of the KGB took the decision to pursue more strongly to the expulsion of dissidents starting some of them, being the most famous case of the writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and also sending the dissident Andrei Saxarov ( physical and one of the creators the Soviet hydrogen bomb in addition to the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975 ) to the city of Gorky for submission to the control of the KGB. It was also in favor of socialist countries do not distance themselves from the USSR in August 1968 and support the introduction of Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslovakia. Then the West could expect if the leadership of the USSR, his enemy fiercest, was in the hands of a stern former Director of the KGB?

At that time there was also a pervasive fear of the sudden outbreak of nuclear war was expressed in various ways, with some of these milestones the exhibition on November 20, 1983 from the movie "The day after the U.S. TV network ABC that showed the world after a nuclear war and also the realization of mass protests against nuclear weapons in Europe and North America.

In terms of military technology world there was great tension around the Soviet and American efforts to develop weapons capable of being launched from satellites, the " Star Wars." In the United States, President Ronald Reagan was being subjected to pressure from a group of scientists and weapons experts led by astronomer Carl Sagan (bottom), which also had been present their grievances to the authorities Soviet, "not to bring war into space." Andropov had declared, probably with the intention of gaining time before the Soviet technological backwardness on this aspect, " prevent the militarization of space is one of the most urgent tasks humanity", however, and the USSR had antisatellite tested an interceptor capable of destroying a satellite in orbit some as-you back.

Moreover, in response to Soviet deployment of rocket pioneer in Soviet territory ( Known to NATO as SS-20. Images below) aimed at targets in Asia and Western Europe, the Americans decided in 1983 to install their Pershing II missiles in West Germany to have her reach at least the western sector of the USSR. Pioneer rockets had since the mid-70s further deepen the Soviet supremacy in intermediate-range missiles (1000-5500 km range), independent thermonuclear carrying 3 heads, each of 250 kilotons, and possessed a range of 4,400 km while the Pershing II had a much smaller range, 650-1800 km, and also lower attack power, only a thermonuclear warhead of between 5-50 kilotons.

Samantha Smith
While the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was in its 3rd an-o and in the midst of all the paranoia about an impending nuclear apocalypse Time magazine publishes its edition of November 22 1982 in which Ronald Reagan cover appeared with Yuri Andropov chosen both as an-o Characters whose lead article described Andropov as someone extremely dangerous attitude hostile to the United States and even willing to start a nuclear war.
a babysitter for those days-a-an American of 10 years called Samantha Smith held the following conversation with his mother who had just bought this edition of Time magazine:

"... I asked my mother if would have a war? Always on TV talking about missiles and nuclear bombs and once I saw a scientific program and the scientists were saying that a nuclear war would destroy the atmosphere, ie one would win a nuclear war. I remember I woke up one day and wondered if that would be the last day for our planet? I asked my mother who would begin the war and why? She showed me a magazine with a story about the United States and Russia that had the picture of Russian leader Yuri Andropov on the cover. We read it together. It seemed that people in both countries feared that any moment the other country to initiate a nuclear war. I had learned in school all the terrible things that happened in the 2nd World War so that nobody would have thought another war. I asked my mom to write him-or Sen. Andropov to know which was the source of this conflict? She said: And why do not you write your own? And that's what I did "

" Dear Sen-or Andropov:

My name is Samantha Smith. I have an os 10. I congratulate you on your new job **. I am very concerned to know whether to start a war between Russia and the United States. You will support the start of a war or not? If you are against, please let me know how it will help prevent it? Of course not obliged to answer the question but I would like to know that you want to conquer the world or at least our country? God created the world so that all could live in peacefully and we did not for war.
Sincerely, Samantha Smith "* **
Referring to his rise as leader of the Soviet Union after Brezhnev's death

* Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I Have Been Worrying about Russia and the United States getting Into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to Have a war or not? If you Are not please tell me how You are going to help to Not Have A War. This question you Do not have to answer, But I Would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least Our Country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and Not to fight.
Sincerely, Samantha Smith

Samantha Reed Smith was born on June 29, 1972 in the town of Houlton, Maine in the United States border with Canada. Armed with only 5 had an "I wrote a letter to Queen Elizabeth II to express their admiration. When he had finished his 2nd degree in the spring of 1980, his family moved to Manchester in the same state of Maine. His father taught-aba literature at the University of Maine at Augusta and his mother, social worker, worked in the department of human services in the same state.

early 1983 Samantha's letter was published in the journal Правда (Pravda), along with its translation and a brief comment that Samantha was said that it could be forgiven for their wrong notions. As this'm glad the little girl-on but since it received no reply to his letter he decided to write a new but this time addressed to the Embassy of the USSR in the United States asking if Andropov finally respond? About 10 days after Samantha received a call from the head local post office who informed him that he had a letter from Andropov ...!

For a hamlet in the United States the news was a bombshell: The supreme leader of a Superpower answered a letter to a provincial little girl. And the truth is the news not only created a sensation in the sin-a city of Manchester but throughout the world bringing the news to number one in the media around the world with Samantha showing Andropov's response in his hands.

not known who carried Andropov to make such a decision, however, after the reaction in the world coming to power answer the naive and simple letter from a U.S. nin-ita that was a gesture more effective demonstration good will and capable of lowering the tension of the environment to such an extent that many thought it was a joint action in the KGB and the CIA in particular for the beauty, naturalness and charm of the girl as having been specially chosen by those features for such a mission.
Andropov's letter that Samantha received on April 26 was written in Russian on colored paper and had been written in blue ink. It was dated April 19, 1983 and came followed by its translation into English:

" Dear Samantha!

recently received your letter as also many others addressed to me both in your country and other countries worldwide.

I think, from your letter, you're a nin-a brave and honest like Becky's friend Tom Sawyer's famous book of your compatriot Mark Twain, a book well known and very loved by all and nin nin-os-as in our country.

You write that you're very worried that came to be a nuclear war between our countries and also questions if we do something so that this war will not explode?

Your question is the most important of all I could do an intelligent person. I answer honestly and seriously,

Samantha Of course we in the Soviet Union tried to do everything possible not only that there is no war between our countries but that there is absolutely no more war in the world. The same wish every person in our country. Well-trained us-or our nation's principal founder, Vladimir Lenin.

Soviet citizens know too well what it's horrible and destructive war. 42 an-os makes Nazi Germany, which sought to conquer the world, our country attacked and burned and looted many thousands of our towns and villages, killing millions of men, women and children-Soviet years.

In this war which ended with the victory we were united with the United States, together fight for the liberation of many countries of the Nazi invaders. I guess you know this for your classes in school history.

Also now we want peace in the world and work and do business with all countries of the globe, near and far, and of course with a country as large as the United States of America.

Both the United States as we have nuclear weapons, weapons that can be frightening in a second killing millions of people. We do not want to ever be used. That is why the Soviet Union declare the whole world that never, ever use an atomic bomb not on its own initiative or in response to a country. You propose to finish level with their manufacture and destroy all these weapons stored on Earth.

I think this response is sufficient to your second question: Why do you want to conquer the world or at least the U.S.? We do not want anything like that. Nobody in our country, no job, no farmer, nor our writers nor doctors, neither adults nor nin-I, nor members of the government, nobody wants a war, large or small to.

We want peace. We have other priorities: Make bread, build, invent, write books and fly into space. We want peace for us and for all peoples on this planet for our children and for you, Samantha.

I invite you, if you get your parents permission, to the Soviet Union, hopefully in the summer. Will know our country, our nin-os and visit our international summer camp and nin nin-os-as by the sea, Artiek. You convince yourself that in the Soviet Union everyone is for peace and friendship among peoples.

Thank you for your congratulations. I wish you the best in the world in your life that is just beginning.

Y. Andropov

The trip to the Soviet Union
Samantha, an 10-years, came to Moscow in the summer, July 7, 1983, with their parents. During the 2 weeks that happened in the USSR captured the attention not only of all Soviet media but also from many others. At the airport and were expecting a crowd of journalists and nin-as their age, which announced the feeling that would cause your trip.

After being in Moscow ( superior images in Red Square and inside the Kremlin, respectively ) with her parents flew to Crimea, the summer camp Artek *, where he met not less people than in Moscow. In the camp of pioneers ( sort of boy scouts prior to entering the Young Communists ) ** I prepared the best room and I spent a pioneer uniform, which made especially for her without knowing their actions and to While pleased to bring it to the United States. Samantha made many friends who said goodbye several days later with tears in his eyes.

Artiek * Summer Camp was founded in 1925 and which are abandoned go-nin-os all Soviets but only those who possessed better qualifications had the opportunity. He also attended nin-os from various countries.
** See note at end of article
Map showing the location of Artiek Camp, south of the Crimean Peninsula and along the Black Sea in the then Soviet Union, now the territory of Ukraine

After a stint in Crimea, Samantha was also in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg, where he had the opportunity of phone conversations with Yuri Andropov * who was very ill and could not meet her personally. *
die at an-or next 15 months just having ruled

Samantha in the arms of the world's first cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova

The July 22, 1983 just before his flight back home the utter Samantha words today remind many of that time: "We're going to live" with a smile and in Russian: Будем жить! (Búdiem llit). Nin-

Many Soviets at that time I kept pictures of Samantha and thanks to her, began to study English.
Later, in his book "Journey to the Soviet Union" would write: They are just like us' and because the purpose of its trip-ary acun the term "child Diplomacy."

visit to Camp pioneers Артек

So Samantha wrote in his book "Journey to USSR" his stay in the pioneer camp Artek:

"... The next day we took off south, hundreds of miles from Moscow, the city of Simferopol, where we waited for the sun and heat. When he descended the stairs I ran to the Pioneers with bouquets of flowers to her calling my name way: "Samantha, Samantha," because in Russia there is no Samantha TH. With them was all fantastic, even for a second stop laughing. On the way to Artek together with an accordion singing to my songs including the famous Soviet popular Пусть всегда будет солнце (they always shine) we sing in English.
Once in the camp, we received several hundred songs nin-os, all dressed in uniforms from the pioneer. The orchestra played and the pioneers pronounced my name with a Russian accent. I was shocked and could not say a word. I was approached by several young dancers carrying a loaf of bread or a small salt shaker. Her dancing seemed a ballet scene. Once again I began to feel like in a dream-o.

We approached the director of Artek, was present and asked she was going to live: With my parents ( who stayed in a Hotel ) or the dancers Morskoi? I already had accustomed me so strongly I replied that with the girls. The Director introduced me to Olga, guide pioneers, and we left together to see where he would stay. I left in the Olga group because almost everyone in the group spoke English. At home there were 10 girls: Viera, Svieta, Ilona, \u200b\u200bVasilina, Natasha Kashirin, etc. We did with Natasha friends immediately. It was a little shy but spoke English very well because his mother was a teacher of English at a school in Leningrad. Natasha was very nice and wonderfully played piano and danced ballet.
We had a balcony overlooking the sea and when I stretched out on the bed he saw the rocks along the shore and felt the salty air of the Black Sea. The truth is that there is nothing but black is the Atlantic Ocean as the waves just are not that great and the water is more salty. In this type of water is easier to swim, you feel like in a life jacket.

Artek I thought that was like our scout camps in the country where everyone lives in tents but there was all different. In all Artek parties had beautiful gardens and winding paths leading to the sea as well as light-colored buildings and beautiful. Simultaneously rested here about 4 thousand kids across the Soviet Union. All were very smart and talented. To access this place was needed not only an excellent student but also, or being a good musician or excel in science or be the champion in a sport or at least know some foreign language. All the guys were very friendly and hospitable and never made me feel alone. I made many friends, including guys who did not know any English. Olga

with the girls in my room I wore the uniform of Artek and I pioneered in hair knotted chiffon ribbons. You wore a tie white with blue specially made for the guests because they can have red only the pioneers. When bedtime came all nonsense and joking and they made me what I liked. Finally, Olga said it was time to sleep and had to stop talking. But even after I cut the light some girls continued whispering in the dark. I also wanted to participate in the conversation but I was so tired I fell asleep immediately. In

Artek life gushed. Everything was perfectly organized, largely thanks to the leaders of the groups of pioneers and educators. Approaching the end of the season and all the boys were rehearsing, preparing for the end of the holiday. Never in my life I had so many things to do!

For a long time I will remember the joyful feast of Neptune. There was everything from swimming competitions, theatrical performances in the water, laughter, jokes and end the Pioneers threw the water to their group leaders.

Guys ask me all the time about the United States, especially as we dressed and what music we liked? Everyone wanted to know how he lived but sometimes, at night we talked of war and the world, but this was more because everyone had a good opinion of the United States and, of course, nobody wanted any war. Almost all the guys had a relative killed during the 2nd World War and all hoped that would never again a war. In addition, it was absurd to talk of a war when we all got along so well. I, indeed, came to the Soviet Union became convinced of this. If we could be friends, it was better to know more rather than compete as a country.

If a war we all die, then the main thing is not starting. I think so.

On my second day on each child Artek Morskoi group wrote in his dream a leaf or more secret and then put them inside an empty bottle to cover with a cork and sealed with wax. After the throw to the sea after a boat from the camp we stay away from the shore. The Black Sea was a sea delighted. I asked for that there was always peace and friendship. In the boat We had an orchestra and sang the songs we always have sun and sea Alma (Морская душа), speaking on the sailors. Hand in hand we rocked back and forth singing. I also sang a little in Russian.

The next day we left by bus and went along the Sea to Yalta. We visited the Palace Ливадийский (Livadiski). In this place was celebrated in 1945 the meeting between the heads of government of the United States, the Soviet Union and England and agreed together to defeat the Nazis in WW2. Along with us was Natasha and some other kids. At the entrance of the Palace we encounter American tourists and they had a sen-ora Schultz, whose husband was a famous author of children's drawings. She gave us me and Natasha few drawings of Snoopy emblems that stick in our pioneering shirts. The Director of the Centre allowed us to sit on the couch where sat Franklin Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference famous . The chair was too big and I tried to let my feet touch the ground to leave no dangling like a nin-ita sin-a.

Artek My last night in a celebration coincided with the end of the holiday. We made a solemn march, the fireworks were fired, there was a dance of masks and other dances in which all the pioneers. All lasted several hours. Even my parents danced. Some girls wore traditional costumes and other kids wore beautiful costumes bear Misha. Imagine hundreds of dancing bears! It was a wonderful show! The celebration came to an end and I approach the microphone and thanked them all.

my parents were invited to a gala dinner near Hotel Artek in which they were staying and where we also left me with Natasha overnight. But we were too rowdy to sleep as it should. Around midnight we got up, got dressed and went quietly to the dining room where the adults to try some pastries and take water. There was the Director of Artek who gave permission to Natasha for the next day-ara accompany us to the airport. We were very happy and promised to go immediately to sleep.

No more than 5 hours sleep because we wanted to go, before the plane took off to Leningrad, to a collective farm and also to an experimental station. Thence in a garden experiments with crops of berries and fruits. When we arrived in the middle of the yard had prepared a table with fruits and berries giants. I remember a raspberry size as a tennis ball. With Natasha play in the garden and ate peaches we got from a tree. Then we went to a collective farm which looks like a miniature city. 3 000 people lived there, adults and children-years. The nin-os attending school and adults working on adjacent land and farms. We met the collective farm boss who invited us to his house, introduced us to his extended family and invited us to eat.

In Simferopol airport when the engine began operating the plane, I was very sad but not crying because Natasha promised to see us in Leningrad a few days later ... "
Samantha Images visiting Leningrad

His return to the United States occurred on July 22 1983, and was received in Maine with roses, a red carpet and a limousine while his ever-rising popularity.

In December 1983 and continuing with his role as the "youngest Ambassador of the United States" was invited to Japan where he met with Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone and also attended the International Symposium childhood in Kobe. Speaking at the meeting suggested that the leaders of the United States and the USSR exchange for their grandchildren for 2 weeks each, or an argument that "nobody would send a bomb to a country where his grandchildren were visiting ." His journey inspired the emergence of other Goodwill Ambassadors including the nin-a Soviet Lycheva Katia.

Later Samantha would write the book Journey to the Soviet Union and turn into a celebrity when in 1984 a special encourage children to Disney Channel channel called Samantha Smith Goes to Washington ... campaigns -to 1984, which interviewed several candidates for the presidency of the republic for the 1984 elections. Participate in 1985 with Robert Wagner (A l medium in the upper image on the right Samantha, who had the role of his eldest daughter ) in a TV series called Lime Street.

The unexpected death of Samantha

It was in the United States back to the filming of one of the episodes of the series "Lime Street" in England would perish Samantha in a plane crash. The ABC series was not yet in the air when Samantha died and had recorded only 3 chapters. She died on 25 August and the series premiered on September 21.

The accident occurred on a rainy night. The 1808 flight of the airline Bar Harbor, a small-or twin-engine Beechcraft 99, was traveling from Londres a Auburne, se estrello a 1600 metros del umbral de la pista del Aeropuerto regional de Lewiston-Auburn, en Auburn, Maine. Al impactar con los arboles se produjo su caida y la muerte de los 6 pasajeros, que incluian a Samantha y su padre ademas de los 2 miembros de la tripulacion. Se culpo a la inexperiencia de los pilotos como tambien a una falla de un radar de tierra, la que no sucedia por primera vez y que tampoco constituia un elemento critico en la operacion aerea.

A sus funerales asistieron cerca de mil personas en Augusta, Maine, asistiendo el actor Robert Wagner y el Embajador Vladimir Kulagin de la URSS en Washington quien leyo un mensaje con las condolencias enviadas por Mixail Gorbachov mientras que el Presidente Reagan envio sus condolencias Samantha's mother:

"Surely you can somewhat comforting considering the millions of Americans who share the sorrow of his pain. They also remember Samantha, her smile, her idealism and genuine sweetness of spirit "

Samantha's remains were cremated and her father and then buried next to each other in the Estabrook Cemetery in Aroostook County , near Houlton Maine, where
nin-to was born.
His death was linked by many in the United States in an action of the KGB while in the USSR to an action of the CIA, however, research showed that the responsibility was only the pilot.

After his death the mother of Samantha repeatedly visited the Soviet Union and then, after dissolution, also visited Ukraine.

His death led to the establishment of a multitude of memorials in his name, more in the USSR that the United States. There was an identical sculpture that stood up in Moscow and Ogasta, United States, inaugurated on December 22, 1986, with the nin-a natural size as a pigeon throwing the fly with a teddy with his legs, this last symbol of both Russia and protector of the state of Maine. Unfortunately, in the late 90's metal dealers Samantha statue stolen in Moscow.

In October 1985 his mother founded the Samantha Smith Foundation is dedicated to organize tours of school groups from the Soviet Union and then Russia, the United States for development of relations between both countries. The foundation ceased to exist in 1995 but the Board of Directors continues to meet annually and as delivering small amounts of money to various nonprofit programs.

In Moscow, in 1987 created the Child diplomacy Center Samantha Smith, which still exists today. The center has several branches in different cities and has a quarterly publication, Ванька-встанька (the name of a children's game in Russia) and is published in Russian Belarusian and Ukrainian. The center also created the August 19, 1991 a school named Samantha that opened its doors on October 1 that an "or children between 6 an-os a16 (

songs are inspired by her and also documentaries. Moreover, in the town of Maine the first Monday in June is officially the day of remembrance of

Samantha Smith was baptized in his honor a recreational boat in the port of Yalta in Crimea that passes near the camp and that they can observe Artiek below:

The September 8, 1985 was named in his honor a 32.7 carat diamond found on 26 August in the city of Yakutia.

December 16 1986, Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Ivanovna Chernyx baptize with the name of the girl-to an asteroid discovered by her in honor of the girl-to: 3147 Samantha. Also served to christen name a type of dahlia and other flower of the cactus family.

On 5 December 1985 and has a circulation of 2.6 million copies was edited a stamp of 28 40 mm: The camp
Артек (Artiek), today Морской (Morskoi, Naval ) on 4 July 1986, I think Samantha Smith Avenue marked by a granite monument.

Екатерина Александровна Лычева

Lychiova Yekaterina Alexandrovna was a Soviet student who followed the footsteps of Samantha but as Goodwill Ambassador in the United States where he goes in quest of peace in 1986. Katia

born on June 10, 1974 in Moscow. His parents were scientists, and she studied at the time of your trip in the English special school in Moscow, number 4.

in 1985 after the death of Samantha Smith, the organization Children as the Peacemakers,
"Nin-os as Ambassadors of Peace", proposed a reciprocal visit to the United States by a Soviet school. It left the choice of the girl-a in Soviet hands but under 2 conditions: that the choice to participate actively in the struggle for peace and not older than Samantha.

Katie was chosen from several thousand candidates. His grandmother who worked at the Home of friendship would have recommended to his granddaughter.

Between 21 March and 4 April 1986 by the United States traveling with another American student, Star Rowe, the city of San Francisco. Katia During the visit he met with President Ronald Reagan.
His trip had much resonance in the Soviet media which allowed him to achieve great popularity, especially among schoolchildren, and even gave him the chance to shoot several films for children, who left no trace, in the decade of the '80s, but his fame began to blend after his emigration to France with his mother. This, call Мария Анатольевна (Maria Anatolievna), was an economist and received a scholarship from President Mitterrand even said that before migrating the real reason for his departure would have been a Frenchman, and which would have separated from her husband and left the USSR . The memory of Katia term to vanish after perestroika and the end of the URS. In Paris, Katia entrance to the Sorbonne where he received higher education in the legal and economic area.

After completing his studies in Paris he worked in the Centro de cooperacion para las inversiones extranjeras de Paris entre 1996-1999. En 2000 regreso a su patria y comenzo a trabajar en el Ministerio del trabajo y desarrollo social y luego en el Ministerio de Industria . Desde 2004 comenzo a trabajar en otra agencia de gobierno y hoy es Vicepresidenta de la Sociedad anonima abierta Avtovaz . Actualmente vive en Moscu y continua soltera.

Se dice que las estrictas instrucciones partidistas que recibio la hicieron palidecer delante de la imagen espontanea y sonriente de Samantha Smith. La misma Yekaterina, ahora adulta, ha afirmado no querer recordar ese episodio de su infancia debido a que solo estaba cumpliendo una mision en la cual ella tenia escaso power of decision.

The pioneers were a Soviet youth organization inspired by the Boy Scouts (founded the latter in 1908 by Robert Baden-Powell English) but government cutting and focused on training the youth in the ideals Communists and also served as a springboard to become part of the Soviet state tables in the future. Being a pioneer was part of a formation process that began in first grade. Between 1 st and 3rd graders passed the nin-os to be ОКТЯБРЕНОК * as part of their preparation to become a pioneer, rank they could achieve after the age of 9 an-os (where, usually, were enrolled in 3rd or 4th grade). Pioneering allowed 13 or 14 an-os the possibility of becoming КОМСОМОЛ **, member of Communist youth. * ** Kamsamól
Pioneers were created on May 19, 1922 but under the name of Spartacus, but after the death of Lenin in 1924, became known as Pioneers. In the USSR practically did not exist o o nin-nin-to outside the organization of the Pioneers. What distinguished the pioneers physically was his red tie, part of a broader standard, which was to carry a characteristic knot plus a blameless and flawless appearance. Being a pioneer was for a young, de facto, mandatory, excluding only students with very bad behavior.

also the distinguished pioneers Camps. The best known were those located by the sea as Artek, along the Black Sea or Okean, located along the Pacific Ocean in the Russian Far East.

Pioneers still exist in Russia but in other ideals and to a much lesser extent, exist even in the Soviet way in countries like Moldova, Venezuela, China, North Korea, Vietnam and Cuba.


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